One of the most important documents of American Political thought, Civil Disobedience eloquently states a position that has influenced the thinking of Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and many figures of the 1960s protests against the Vietnam War. Thoreau argues that the progress from an absolute to a limited monarchy, from a limited monarchy to a democracy, is a progress toward a true respect for the individual. There will never be a really free and enlightened State until the State comes to reco 1817, in Concord, Massachusetts, the third of four children.
His family lived on a modest, sometimes meager, income; his father, John, worked by turns as a farmer, schoolteacher, grocer, and pencil-maker; his mother, Cynthia, was a teacher and would take in boarders when money was scarce. Young Henrys gifts manifested themselves early. He wrote his first piece, The Seasons, at age ten, and memorized portions of Shakespeare, the Bible, and Samuel Johnson while studying at the Center School and Concord Academy.
In addition to his academic pursuits, Henry rambled through the countryside on exploratory walks and attended lectures at the Concord Lyceum, where as an adult he would fascinate audiences with his discourses on life on Walden Pond. Thoreau began his studies at Harvard College in 1833. His years at Harvard were stimulating, if solitary; he immersed himself in a traditional humanities curriculum of multiple languages, anatomy, history, and geography.
Upon graduation in 1837, he began teaching in Concord at the Center School, the public school hed attended as a boy, but left his post after being told to administer corporal punishment to a student. During these years following college Thoreau published his first essay and poem, began lecturing at the Concord Lyceum, and attended Transcendentalist discussions at the home of his mentor, the renowned essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson. At Emersons urging, Thoreau started a journal a project that would become his lifelong passion and culminate in more than two million words.
A boat trip with his brother, John, in 1839 set the foundation for his well known work A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. Sadly, unforeseen tragedy separated the tightly knit brothers in 1842, when John died of lockjaw caused by a razor cut. The following year, Thoreau joined Emerson in editing the Transcendental periodical The Dial, a publication to which Thoreau would become a prolific contributor.
He also pulled up stakes for a time, accepting a position to tutor Emersons children in Staten Island, New York. Half a year later, Thoreau returned to his familys house in Concord, deeply affected by the abolitionists he had met in Manhattan. He dedicated much of his time to lectures and essays advocating abolition and became involved in sheltering runaway slaves on their journey north.
In 1846 Thoreau was briefly imprisoned for refusing to pay a poll tax to the village of Concord, in protest against the governments support of slavery, as well as its war of expansion with Mexico. His experience in the Concord jail led to the writing of what would later be titled Civil Disobedience. Unappreciated in Thoreaus lifetime, Civil Disobedience is now considered one of the countrys seminal political works.
During this period, Thoreau built his cabin on Walden Pond and lived there for a little more than two years. In this small home on Emersons property, he began writing his most enduring work, Walden; or, Life in the Woods, and finished the manuscript for A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. Sales were exceedingly poor, with Thoreau eventually acquiring 706 unsold copies of the original 1000 copy print run.
Thoreau quipped, I have now a library of nearly nine hundred volumes, over seven hundred of which I wrote myself. When Walden was published in 1854, sales were brisk and its reception favorable, although Thoreaus work as a whole remained somewhat obscure during his lifetime. By the time Walden was published, Thoreau had turned from the largely symbolic approach to nature that he had learned from Emerson and other Romantic writers to a much more empirical approach, more in keeping with new scientific methods.
His observations of nature throughout the 1850s, largely recorded in his journals, have come to be regarded as a model of ecological attentiveness, even though the term ecology was not coined until 1866. He developed several talks on the natural history of the Concord region, and even set to work on a series of longer, book-length manuscripts. Two of these, one on the dispersal of tree seeds and the other on the regions many wild fruits, were not published until 1993 and 2000 respectively.
Today, Thoreaus writing is valued for both the poetic imagination and the scientific methodology it displays. As the years passed, Thoreaus commitment to the antislavery movement strengthened, as did his popularity as a lecturer and essayist. Even in the declining health of his later years, he remained a man of conviction and action, writing on many subjects and participating in various political causes until shortly before his death from tuberculosis.
George Eliots review of Walden singles out qualities that attract readers to this day a deep poetic sensibility and a refined as well as a hardy mind. Henry David Thoreau died on May 6, 1862, in Concord. Author biography from the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of Walden.
Good To Know Thoreaus mother originally christened him David Henry Thoreau. Both of his elder brothers were schoolteachers who helped to pay Thoreaus way through Harvard (about 179 a year in 1837). Most biographers remain undecided about Thoreaus sexuality.
He never married, although he proposed to friend Ellen Sewall in 1840 (she rejected his offer). Some believe he was a repressed homosexual, and others that he was asexual and wholly celibate. Thoreaus grave is located in the Sleepy Hollow cemetery at Concord, Massachusetts, beside those of fellow literary legends Nathaniel Hawthorne and Ralph Waldo Emerson.